A relic hunter dubbed 'Indiana Bones' has lifted the lid on a macabre collection of 400-year-old Art historian Paul Koudounaris hunted down and photographed dozens of gruesome skeletons in some of the world's most secretive religious establishments.
some of the skeletons, said to be the remains of early Christian
martyrs, were even found hidden away in lock-ups and containers.
They are now the subject of a new book, which sheds light on the forgotten ornamented relics for the first time.
of skeletons were dug up from Roman catacombs in the 16th century and
installed in towns around Germany, Austria and Switzerland on the orders
of the Vatican.
were sent to Catholic churches and religious houses to replace the
relics destroyed in the wake of the Protestant Reformation in the
for the remains of early Christian martyrs, the morbid relics, known as
the Catacomb Saints, became shrines reminding of the spiritual
treasures of the afterlife.
They were also symbols of the Catholic Church's newly found strength in previously Protestant areas.
one was painstakingly decorated in thousands of pounds worth of gold,
silver and gems by devoted followers before being displayed in church
Some took up to five years to decorate.
were renamed as saints, although none of them qualified for the title
under the strict rules of the Catholic church which require saints to
have been canonised.
by the 19th century they had become morbid reminders of an embarrassing
past and many were stripped of their honours and discarded.
Koudounaris' new book, Heavenly Bodies: Cult Treasures and Spectacular
Saints from the Catacombs, is the first time the skeletons have appeared
Koudounaris, from Los Angeles, said: 'I was working on another book
looking into charnel houses when I came across the existence of these
'As I discovered more about them I had this feeling that it was my duty
to tell their fascinating story.
'After they were found in the Roman catacombs the Vatican authorities
would sign certificates identifying them as martyrs then they put the
bones in boxes and sent them northwards.
skeletons would then be dressed and decorated in jewels, gold and
silver, mostly by nuns.
'They had to be handled by those who had taken a sacred vow to the
church - these were believed to be martyrs and they couldn't have just
anyone handling them.
'They were symbols of the faith triamphant and were made saints in the
of the reasons they were so important was not for their spiritual
merit, which was pretty dubious, but for their social importance.
'They were thought to be miraculous and really solidified people's bond
with a town. This reaffirmed the prestige of the town itself.'
He added: 'It's impossible to put a modern-day value on the skeletons.'